Acid-Base Physiology

Contents

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This Acid-base tutorial has recently (2006) been independently reviewed by the American Thoracic Society for their "Best of the Web" series. See their comprehensive reviews of the top Clinical Acid-Base sites. This on-line tutorial was rated 4 and a half stars (out of 5) and shared equal top ranking

Recent changes - November 2008: I have started adding in references for some of the sections. Each reference will be linked to PubMed.

Chapter 1 : Introduction

1.1 Overview
1.2 Acids and Bases
1.3 The Hydrogen Ion
1.4 Measurement of pH
1.5 Importance of pH in Cellular Metabolism 1.6 Imidazole Alpha-Stat Hypothesis

Chapter 2 : Control of Acid-Base Balance

2.1 Acid-Base Balance
2.2 Buffering
2.3 Respiratory Regulation
2.4 Renal Regulation
2.5 The Acid-Base Role of the Liver
2.6 Regulation of Intracellular [H+]

Chapter 3 : Acid-Base Disorders

3.1 Terminology of Acid-Base Disorders
3.2 Anion Gap
3.3 The Delta Ratio
3.4 Urinary Anion Gap
3.5 Osmolar Gap

Chapter 4 : Respiratory Acidosis

4.1 Definition
4.2 Causes
4.3 Maintenance
4.4 Metabolic Effects
4.5 Compensation
4.6 Correction
4.7 Assessment
4.8 Prevention

Chapter 5 : Metabolic Acidosis

5.1 Definition
5.2 Causes
5.3 Maintenance
5.4 Metabolic Effects
5.5 Compensation
5.6 Correction
5.7 Assessment
5.8 Prevention

Chapter 6 : Respiratory Alkalosis

6.1 Definition
6.2 Causes
6.3 Maintenance
6.4 Metabolic Effects
6.5 Compensation
6.6 Correction
6.7 Assessment
6.8 Prevention

Chapter 7 : Metabolic Alkalosis

7.1 Definition
7.2 Causes
7.3 Maintenance
7.4 Metabolic Effects
7.5 Compensation
7.6 Correction
7.7 Assessment
7.8 Prevention

Chapter 8 : Major Types of Metabolic Acidosis

8.1 Lactic Acidosis
8.2 Ketoacidosis
8.3 Acidosis and Renal Failure
8.4 Hyperchloraemic Acidosis
8.5 Renal Tubular Acidosis
8.6 Acidosis due to Drugs and Toxins
8.7 Use of Bicarbonate in Metabolic Acidosis

Chapter 9 : Assessment of Acid-Base Disorders

9.1 Structured Approach to Assessment
9.2 Systematic Evaluation
9.3 Bedside Rules to Assess Compensation
9.4 The Rationale
9.5 The Great Trans-Atlantic Acid-Base Debate
9.6 Clinical Examples

Case History Index for worked examples

Chapter 10 : Quantitative Acid-Base Analysis

10.1 The System
10.2 The Background
10.3 The Variables
10.4 The Equations
10.5 The Solutions
10.6 The Implications

Chapter 11 : Special Aspects of Acid-Base Physiology

11.1 Pregnancy
11.2 Children
11.3 Acid-Base Disorders due to Drugs and Toxins

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