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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 : Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology
Distribution of Body Water, 1
Control of Body water, 3
Measurement of Compartment Volumes, 5
Control of Intracellular Volume, 7
Osmotic pressure, 8
Osmolality and Tonicity, 9
Oncotic pressure, 11
Sodium concentrations, 13
Functions of Magnesium, 17
Gibbs-Donnan Relationship, 18
Infusion of 1000mls of 3N Saline
Chapter 2: Acid-Base Physiology
Respiratory Regulation of Acid-Base Balance, 27
Renal Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
Effects of Hypercapnia, 32
Adverse Effects of Hypocapnia, 33
Interpretation of Arterial Blood Gases, 34
Infusion of 1N Hydrochloric Acid
Infusion of 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate
Chapter 3: Cardiovascular Physiology
Ventricular Pressure Curve, 39 Pressure-Volume Loop, 42(View sample section)
Determinants of Myocardial Performance, 46
Cardiac Output, 49
Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, 52
Valsalve Manoeuvre, 53
CVS Response to Standing, 56
CVS Response to Rapid Loss of 1000mls of Blood, 57
Rapid Transfusion of 1000mls of IV Fluids, 59
Cerebral Blood Flow, 62
Coronary Blood Flow, 69
Hepatic Blood Flow, 72
Renal Blood Flow, 73
Pulmonary Microcirculation, 81
Myocardial Action Potentials, 85
Properties of Cardiac Muscle, 88
Mixed Venous Blood, 90
Distribution of Blood Volume, 92
Effects of Anaemia, 95
Venous Return, 98
Physiology of CPR, 100
Arterial Pulse Contours, 101
Cardiac and Vascular Function Curves, 103
Hyperventilation with Chest Compression, 105
Chapter 4: Respiratory Physiology
Dead Space, 106
Lung Volumes, 110
Functional Residual Capacity, 111
Closing Capacity, 118
Oxygen Cascade, 119
Oxygen Transport, 121 Oxygen Dissociation Curve, 122(View sample section)
Carbon Dioxide Transport, 128
Differences between the Base and Apex of the Lung, 130
Volume, Pressure & Flow during Normal Breathing, 131
Physiology of Preoxygenation, 132
Breathing 100% Oxygen, 134
Resorption of a Pneumothorax, 136
Flow-Volume Loop, 138
Non-Respiratory Functions of the Lung, 142
Respiratory Response to High Altitude, 144
Functions of the Nose, 145
Functions of the Red Blood Cell, 146
Mechanics of Breathing, 148
Alveolar-arterial pO2 gradient, 149
Hypoxaemia and Hypoxia, 152
Pulmonary Vascular Resistance, 156
Chapter 5: Renal Physiology
Formation of Urine, 158
Glomerular Filtration Rate, 160
Preoperative Tests of Renal Function, 162
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus, 163
Excretion of Bicarbonate by the Kidney, 164
Renal Clearance, 165
Endocrine Functions of the Kidney, 166
Excretion of Urea, 168
Chapter 6: Endocrine Physiology and Metabolism
Regulation of the Blood Glucose Level, 173
Synthesis of the Thyroid Hormones, 177
The Pituitary, 178
Control of Calcium Level, 179
Mechanisms by which Hormones Interact with Cells, 180
Metabolic Rate, 183
Chapter 7: Physiology of Blood
Storage of Blood, 184
Compatibility Testing of Blood, 186
Plasma Proteins, 188
The Immune System, 190
Blood Groups, 202
Vitamin K, 206
The Death of a Red Cell, 211
Chapter 8: Gastrointestinal Physiology
Gastric Acid Secretion, 212
Bile Acids, 214
Functions of the Liver, 216
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates, 220
Abdominal Pressure, 222
Chapter 9: Neurophysiology
Cerebrospinal Fluid, 223
Blood-Brain Barrier, 225
Propagation of an Action Potential, 226
Oculocardiac Reflex, 227
Peripheral Nerves, 228
Functions of the Hypothalamus, 230
Resting Membrane Potential, 232
Chapter 10: Physiology of Muscle and the Neuromuscular Junction
Muscle Spindles, 233
Physiology of Neuromuscular Transmission, 235
Physiology of Muscle Contraction, 237
Smooth Muscle, 239
Types of Skeletal Muscle, 241
Chapter 11: Maternal, Foetal and Neonatal Physiology
Cardiorespiratory Changes at Birth, 243
Functions of the Placenta, 244
Neonatal Temperature Regulation, 246
Maternal Cardiorespiratory Changes during Pregnancy, 248
Neonatal Respiratory Physiology, 250 Placental Gas Exchange, 252(View sample section)
The First Breath, 257
Amniotic Fluid, 258
Chapter 12: Clinical Measurement
Exponential Functions, 259
Invasive Pressure Measurement, 261
Gauge Pressure & Pressure Gauges, 265
Strain Gauges, 267
Oscillometric BP Measurement, 268
Oxygen Analysis, 269
Carbon Dioxide Analysis, 270
Volatile Agent Monitoring, 272
Pressure Changes during Insertion of a Pulmonary Artery Catheter, 274
Temperature Measurement, 276
Measurement of Humidity, 278
Measurement of the Oxygen Content of a Blood Sample, 279
Physical Principles of Vaporisers, 281
Gas Laws, 284
Chapter 13: Miscellaneous Topics
Body Temperature Regulation, 285
Functions of the Skin, 287
Intraocular Pressure, 289
Physiological Principles in the Care of a Tracheostomy, 291
Physiology of Anaphylaxis, 292